Bioavailability – Measurement Questions and Answers

Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Bioavailability – Measurement

This set of Drug Biotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Bioavailability – Measurement”.

1. Find out the correct option for the marked place in the given picture of the rate of excretion versus midpoint time of urine collection period curve.
drug-biotechnology-questions-answers-measurement-bioavailability-q11
a) (dXu/dt)max
b) (tu)max
c) Xu
d) Cmax

Explanation: The greatest urine excretion rate is (dXu/dt)max. This is calculated by comparing the peak rate of excretion to the midpoint of the urine collection interval. Because the rate of appearance of a drug in the urine is related to its concentration in circulation, it is equivalent to Cmax from plasma level investigations. As the rate of absorption increases, so does its worth. (tu)max is the time for maximal excretion rate; as the absorption rate increases, its value falls. The total amount of drug discharged in the urine is referred to as Xu.

2. Find out the correct option for the marked place in the given picture of the rate of excretion versus midpoint time of urine collection period curve.
drug-biotechnology-questions-answers-measurement-bioavailability-q12
a) (dXu/dt)max
b) (tu)max
c) Xu
d) Cmax

Explanation: The greatest urine excretion rate is (dXu/dt)max. This is calculated by comparing the peak rate of excretion to the midpoint of the urine collection interval. (tu)max is the time for maximal excretion rate; as the absorption rate increases, its value falls. The curve resembles the plasma-level time profile observed after a single dose of the medication is taken orally.

3. Which of the following is not measured in acute pharmacological response study?
a) ECG
b) EEG
c) Pupil diameter
d) Serum drug level

Explanation: When measuring bioavailability via pharmacokinetic processes is difficult, incorrect, and non-reproducible, an immediate pharmacological impact, such as a change in ECG, EEG, pupil diameter, or other parameters, is linked to the time course of a specific medication. The pharmacologic effect-time curve and dose-response graphs can then be used to calculate bioavailability.

4. Therapeutic response is based on observing the clinical response to a drug formulation.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Clinical reactions to a medication formulation given to people suffering from the disease for which the treatment should be administered are used to determine therapeutic response. The method has a flaw in that the quantification of observed reaction is insufficient to determine relative bioavailability different dose forms of the same medication.

5. In vitro determination of bioavailability by dissolution rate is not the best way to determine therapeutic efficacy.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The dissolution rate is a physicochemical attribute of most medications that has the biggest impact on their absorption properties from the gastrointestinal system. The in vivo measurement of bioavailability is used to examine the therapeutic efficacy of slow dissolving medicines. It’s done every time a new formulation is about to hit the market.

6. What is bioavailability?
a) The time of absorption of the drug from its dosage form
b) The rate of absorption of the unchanged drug from its dosage form
c) The time of absorption of the unchanged drug from its dosage form
d) The rate of absorption of the drug from its dosage form

Explanation: The rate or amount of absorption of an unmodified drug from its dose form is defined as physiologic availability, biologic availability, or simply bioavailability. Because some treatments, such as asthma attacks, require rapid onset action, the rate at which the medicine is absorbed is critical.

7. What is the equation of bioavailable fraction?
a) 1/Bioavailable dose
b) 1/Administered dose
c) Bioavailable dose/Administered dose
d) Administered dose/Bioavailable dose

Explanation: Systemic bioavailability refers to the amount of a medicine that reaches the systemic circulation. After drug delivery, the bioavailable fraction F refers to the portion of the supplied dose that enters the systemic circulation. F = Bioavailable dosage/Administered dose is the formula.

8. Which of the following is not an objective of bioavailability studies?

a) Primary stages of development of suitable dosage form for new drug
b) Determination of the influence of excipients, patient-related factors, etc
c) Development of new formulations of the existing drugs
d) Control the quantity of the drug to be administered

Explanation: Bioavailability studies are most commonly performed to investigate the quality of a drug product at the early stages of marketing, in order to identify the impact of manufacturing parameters, storage, and stability on drug absorption. Other goals include developing an appropriate dose form, determining the impact of excipients, patient-related factors, and developing new formulations for current medications.

9. Single-dose bioavailability studies are simple and common.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Single-dose bioavailability tests are common, simple, provide less drug exposure, and are less time consuming. Although it is difficult to predict the steady-state properties of a drug and inter-subject variability in a single dose bioavailability research. Controlling a multiple dosage study is tough.

10. Multiple dose study is better since we can understand the peak, valley, drug blood levels, etc.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Multiple dose studies are difficult to manage since the individual is exposed to a higher level of drug, which can be harmful in some cases. This procedure is time-consuming and tedious. The advantages of this method are that it properly reflects how a medicine should be used, it is easy to forecast a drug’s peak and valley, it can be performed ethically on a patient, and it allows for a better evaluation of the performance of controlled release formulations.

11. Which of the following is the pharmacodynamics method of studying bioavailability?
a) Acute pharmacologic response
b) Plasma-level time studies
c) Urinary excretion studies
d) Stool excretion studies

Explanation: Pharmacodynamic approaches are time-dependent measurements of a drug’s effect on physiological systems. Acute pharmacologic response and therapeutic response are the approaches used. The indirect approaches of pharmacokinetics are plasma level time studies and urinary excretion investigations.

12. Which of the following is not an important parameter of plasma level time studies?
a) Cmax
b) Tax
c) The area under the plasma level-time curve
d) Steady state level

Explanation: The maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) indicates whether the drug has been absorbed systemically and is capable of providing a therapeutic response. Tmax is the maximum time that can be used to calculate the rate of absorption. The region beneath the plasma level-time curve represents the amount of medication absorption that enters the systemic circulation.

13. What is the equation for bioavailability?
a) [AUC]std Dstd τtest / [AUC]test Dtest τstd
b) [AUC]test Dtest τstd / [AUC]std Dstd τtest
c) [AUC]test Dstd τtest / [AUC]std Dtest τstd
d) 1 / [AUC]std Dtest τstd

Explanation: [AUC]test is the bioavailability equation.  Dtest std, where D stands for dose administered and test and std are test and standard doses of the same drug used to establish relative availability. The period between doses is.

14. The urinary excretion of the unchanged drug is directly proportional to the plasma concentration of a drug.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Urinary excretion studies aid in determining bioavailability since unmodified drug excretion in the urine is directly proportional to the drug’s plasma concentration. Bioavailability can be determined whether a medicine is excreted at least 10% to 20% in the urine.

15. Which of the following will not be a parameter that should be examined for urinary excretion data?
a) (dXu/dt)max
b) (tu)max
c) Xu
d) Cmax

Explanation: The greatest urine excretion rate is (dXu/dt)max. Because the rate of appearance of a drug in the urine is related to its concentration in circulation, it is equivalent to Cmax from plasma level investigations. As the rate of absorption increases, so does its worth. (tu)max is the time for maximal excretion rate; as the absorption rate increases, its value falls. The total amount of drug discharged in the urine is referred to as Xu.

The area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC—see figure) is commonly used to determine bioavailability. After a single ora…), a representative plasma concentration–time relationship was obtained. The AUC is the most reliable indicator of a drug’s bioavailability. The greatest urine excretion rate is (dXu/dt)max. This is calculated by comparing the peak rate of excretion to the midpoint of the urine collection interval. Because the rate of appearance of a drug in the urine is related to its concentration in circulation, it is equivalent to Cmax from plasma level investigations. As the rate of absorption increases, so does its worth.

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